Cardiopulmonary Anatomy & Physiology

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,CONTENTSList of Tables xiiiForeword xvPreface xviiAcknowledgments xxSection OneThe Cardiopulmonary System—The Essentials 1Chapter 1The Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System 3The Airways 7The Upper Airway 7The Lower Airways 22The Sites of Gas Exchange 34The Pulmonary Vascular System 37The Lymphatic System 41Neural Control of the Lungs 43The Lungs 44The Mediastinum 46The Pleural Membranes 48The Thorax 49The Diaphragm 50Chapter Summary 58Review Questions 59Chapter 2Ventilation 63Pressure Differences Across the Lungs 64Role of the Diaphragm in Ventilation 67vIvi CONTENTSPositive Pressure Ventilation 69Static Characteristics of the Lungs 71Dynamic Characteristics of the Lungs 86Ventilatory Patterns 94How Normal Intrapleural Pressure Differences Cause RegionalDifferences in Normal Lung Ventilation 100The Effect of Airway Resistance and Lung Compliance onVentilatory Patterns 101Overview of Specific Ventilatory Patterns 102Chapter Summary 106Clinical Applications 109Review Questions 112Clinical Application Questions 115Chapter 3The Diffusion of Pulmonary Gases 117Gas Laws 118The Partial Pressures of Atmospheric Gases 120The Ideal Alveolar Gas Equation 122The Diffusion of Pulmonary Gases 123Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Diffusion Across the Alveolar-Capillary Membrane 124Gas Diffusion 128Perfusion-Limited Gas Flow 130Diffusion-Limited Gas Flow 131How Oxygen Can Be Either Perfusion or Diffusion Limited 134Chapter Summary 136Clinical Applications 136Review Questions 139Clinical Application Questions 141Chapter 4Pulmonary Function Measurements 143Lung Volumes and Capacities 144Pulmonary Mechanics 148How the Effects of Dynamic Compression Decrease ExpiratoryFlow Rates 157CONTENTS viiChapter Summary 161Clinical Applications 162Review Questions 166Clinical Application Questions 168Chapter 5TheAnatomy and Physiology of the Circulatory System 169The Blood 170The Heart 175The Pulmonary and Systemic Vascular Systems 183Pressures in the Pulmonary and Systemic VascularSystems 187The Cardiac Cycle and Its Effect on Blood Pressure 188The Distribution of Pulmonary Blood Flow 192Chapter Summary 203Clinical Applications 205Review Questions 208Clinical Application Questions 210Chapter 6Oxygen Transport 211Oxygen Transport 213Oxygen Dissociation Curve 216Oxygen Transport Studies 229Tissue Hypoxia 240Cyanosis 242Polycythemia 243Chapter Summary 244Clinical Applications 244Review Questions 248Clinical Application Questions 250Chapter 7Carbon Dioxide Transport and Acid-Base Balance 251Carbon Dioxide Transport 252Carbon Dioxide Elimination at the Lungs 254viii CONTENTSCarbon Dioxide Dissociation Curve 256Acid-Base Balance 259The Role of the /HCO35/pH Relationship in Acid-BaseBalance 261Chapter Summary 270Clinical Applications 270Review Questions 273Clinical Application Questions 275Chapter 8Ventilation-Perfusion Relationships 277Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio 277Chapter Summary 286Clinical Applications 287Review Questions 290Clinical Application Questions 291Chapter 9Control of Ventilation 293The Respiratory Components of the Medulla Oblongata 294The Influence of the Pontine Respiratory Centers on theRespiratory Components of the Medulla Oblongata 296Monitoring Systems That Influence the Respiratory Componentsof the Medulla Oblongata 298Reflexes That Influence Ventilation 304Chapter Summary 306Clinical Applications 307Review Questions 309Clinical Application Questions 311Chapter 10Fetal Development and the Cardiopulmonary System 313Fetal Lung Development 314Placenta 316Fetal Circulation 319Birth 321PCO2CONTENTS ixControl of Ventilation in the Newborn 323Clinical Parameters in the Normal Newborn 324Chapter Summary 326Clinical Applications 326Review Questions 329Clinical Application Questions 330Chapter 11Aging and the Cardiopulmonary System 333The Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System 335Pulmonary Gas Exchange 339Arterial Blood Gases 339The Effects of Aging on the Cardiovascular System 340Chapter Summary 344Review Questions 344Section TwoAdvanced Card,
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  • 出版日期:Cardiopulmonary Anatomy & Physiology Essentials for Respiratory Care FOURTH EDITION
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